Fifth Grade


Fifth Grade

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English and Language Arts - Reading



Acquisition of Vocabulary

1. Define the meaning of unknown words by using context clues and the author's use of definition, restatement and example.

     English Works Reading Practice

     Using Context Clues

     Context is the Key

     Using Multiple Meanings

     Words with Multiple Meanings

     Contxt Clues

     Guessing Vocabulary in Context

     Three Quizzes

2. Use context clues to determine the meaning of synonyms, antonyms, homophones, homonyms and homographs.

     Homophone Quiz

     Homophone Quiz 2

     Homophone Quiz 3

     Easily Confused Words

     Easily Confused Words 2

     Synonyms, Antonyms and Homonyms

     A Feast of Homonyms

     Antonym Matching

     EZ Games -- Click on Topic, Vocabulary



     Synonyms --Quia

     Student Activity Center Antonyms

     Awesome Antonyms Match Up


     Ed Helper Homonyms

     Word Play Antonyms

3. Identify the connotation and denotation of new words.

4. Identify and understand new uses of words and phrases in text, such as similes and metaphors.

     Similes and Metaphors

     Figurative Language Quiz

5. Use word origins to determine the meaning of unknown words and phrases.

     The Toughest Word game on the Web

6. Apply the knowledge of prefixes, suffixes and roots and their various inflections to analyze the meanings of words.

     Suffix and Prefix Machine

     Root Words from EdHelper

     Rooting Out Words

     Root Words

     Prefix Catch

     Using Suffixes

     Using Prefixes

7. Identify the meanings of abbreviations.

     Education Acronyms/Abbreviations

8. Determine the meanings and pronunciations of unknown words by using dictionaries, thesauruses, glossaries, technology and textual features, such as definitional footnotes or sidebars.

     Know Play

Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies

1. Establish and adjust purposes for reading, including to find out, to understand, to interpret, to enjoy and to solve problems.

     News Quiz Archive


     Happy Monkey

     Reading Exercises

     Reading for a Purpose

     Elephant Selection and Quiz

     Dolphin Selection and Quiz

     BrainChild Test

2. Predict and support predictions with specific references to textual examples that may be in widely separated sections of text.

     Guess What Comes Next

3. Make critical comparisons across texts.

4. Summarize the information in texts, recognizing that there may be several important ideas rather than just one main idea and identifying details that support each.


     Summarizing as you Read

5. Make inferences based on implicit information in texts, and provide justifications for those inferences.

     Drawing Inferences

     Inference Battleship

     Practice Making Inferences

     What is an Inference

     Making Inferences and Drawing Conclusions

     Drawing Conclusions

6. Select, create and use graphic organizers to interpret textual information.

     Enchanted Learning Graphic Organizers

     Graphic Organizers Education Place

     Graphics Organizers

7. Answer literal, inferential and evaluative questions to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and electronic and visual media.

     Grade 5 Interactive Reading Test

     Grade 5 Interactive Reading Test 2

     Grade 5 Interactive Reading Test 3

8. Monitor own comprehension by adjusting speed to fit the purpose, or by skimming, scanning, reading on, looking back or summarizing what has been read so far in text.

9. List questions and search for answers within the text to construct meaning.

     Asking Questions

10. Use criteria to choose independent reading materials (e.g., personal interest, knowledge of authors and genres or recommendations from others).

     List of Genres

11. Independently read books for various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain information or to perform a task).

     Stories OnLine

Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text

1. Use text features, such as chapter titles, headings and subheadings; parts of books including the index and table of contents and online tools (search engines) to locate information.


     Looking for the Fine Print

     Captions Help Tell the Story

     Reading Headlines

     Know Play

2. Identify, distinguish between and explain examples of cause and effect in informational text.

     Cause and Effect Printable Graphic Organizers

     Cause and Effect 1

     Cause and Effect Relationship

     Cause and Effect Actions

3. Compare important details about a topic, using different sources of information, including books, magazines, newspapers and online resources.

4. Summarize the main ideas and supporting details.

     Supporting Details

     Main Idea

     Main Idea 2


5. Analyze information found in maps, charts, tables, graphs and diagrams.

     What's on a Map

     Interpreting a Grid Chart

     Interpreting a Bar Graph

     Interpreting Circle/Pie Graphs

6. Clarify steps in a set of instructions or procedures for proper sequencing and completeness and revise if necessary.

     Sequencing for Fun

     Sequence of Events

7. Analyze the difference between fact and opinion.

     Distinguishing Between Fact and Opinion

     Fact and Opinion

     Fact and Opinion Self Test

     Quiz 1

     Quiz 2

     Fact or Opinion


     Fact or Opinion?

8. Distinguish relevant from irrelevant information in a text and identify possible points of confusion for the reader.

9. Identify and understand an author's purpose for writing, including to explain, to entertain or to inform.

     Author's Point of View

     Author's Purpose

     Author's Purpose

     Indenifying the Author's Purpose

     Different Types of Text

     Author's Purpose Game


Reading Applications: Literary Text

1. Explain how a character's thoughts, words and actions reveal his or her motivations.

2. Explain the influence of setting on the selection.

     Setting, Plot, and Theme

     Understanding the Setting, Plot, Theme

3. Identify the main incidents of a plot sequence and explain how they influence future action.

     Setting, Plot, and Theme

     Understanding the Setting, Plot, Theme

4. Identify the speaker and explain how point of view affects the text.

     Point of View Quiz

5. Summarize stated and implied themes.

6. Describe the defining characteristics of literary forms and genres, including poetry, drama, chapter books, biographies, fiction and non-fiction.

     Fiction and Non-Fiction


     Poetry Quiz

7. Interpret how an author's choice of words appeals to the senses and suggests mood.

8. Identify and explain the use of figurative language in literary works, including idioms, similes, hyperboles, metaphors and personification.

    Alliteration or Simile

    Word Play 1

    Word Play 2

    Word Play 3

    Word Play 4

    Eye on Idioms


    Idioms Quiz

    Simile Quiz

English and Language Arts - Writing



Writing Processes

1. Generate writing ideas through discussions with others and from printed material, and keep a list of writing ideas.

2. Conduct background reading, interviews or surveys when appropriate.

3. State and develop a clear main idea for writing.

4. Determine a purpose and audience.

     Business Letter

     Friendly Letter Writing

     Types of Writing

     Author's Purpose

5. Use organizational strategies (e.g., rough outlines, diagrams, maps, webs and Venn diagrams) to plan writing.

     Graphic Organizers

     Enchanted Learning Graphic Organizers  

6. Organize writing, beginning with an introduction, body and a resolution of plot, followed by a closing statement or a summary of important ideas and details.

7. Vary simple, compound and complex sentence structures.

8. Group related ideas into paragraphs, including topic sentences following paragraph form, and maintain a consistent focus across paragraphs.

9. Vary language and style as appropriate to audience and purpose.

10. Use available technology to compose text.

     Kids Magnetic Poetry Page

     Riddle Interactive

     Write Acrostice Poems

     Comic Creator

     Write a Diamante Poem

     Create a Flip Book

     Letter Generator

     Letter Poem Creator

     Postcard Creator

     Printing Press

     Shape Poems

     Stapeless Book

11. Reread and assess writing for clarity, using a variety of methods (e.g., writer's circle or author's chair).

12. Add and delete information and details to better elaborate on a stated central idea and to more effectively accomplish purpose.

13. Rearrange words, sentences and paragraphs, and add transitional words and phrases to clarify meaning.

14. Use resources and reference materials (e.g., dictionaries and thesauruses) to select more effective vocabulary.

    Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary and Thesaurus

    Know Play

15. Proofread writing, edit to improve conventions, (e.g., grammar, spelling, punctuation and capitalization), and identify and correct fragments and run-ons.

     Power ProofReading

     Great Practice Site --ESL

     OnLine Writing Test

     ProofReading Makes Perfect

16. Apply tools (e.g., rubric, checklist and feedback) to judge the quality of writing.


     Make a Rubric

17. Prepare for publication (e.g., for display or for sharing with others), writing that follows a format appropriate to the purpose, using techniques such as electronic resources and graphics to enhance the final product.

Writing Applications

1. Write narratives with a consistent point of view, using sensory details and dialogue to develop characters and setting.

2. Write responses to novels, stories and poems that organize an interpretation around several clear ideas, and justify the interpretation through the use of examples and specific textual evidence.

3. Write letters that state the purpose, make requests or give compliments and use business letter format.

     ReviseWise - Factual Writings: Letters

     Writing a Friendly Letter

4. Write informational essays or reports, including research, that organize information with a clear introduction, body and conclusion following common expository structures when appropriate (e.g., cause-effect, comparison-contrast) and include facts, details and examples to illustrate important ideas.

5. Produce informal writings (e.g., journals, notes and poems) for various purposes.

     How to Write Poems

Writing Conventions

1. Spell high-frequency words correctly.

     FunBrain Spelling Games

     Harcourt Brace Spelling

     Online Spelling Test

2. Spell contractions correctly.

     Contraction Quiz

3. Spell roots, suffixes and prefixes correctly.

     Prefix Catch

4. Use commas, end marks, apostrophes and quotation marks correctly.

     Punctuation Marks



     Commas in a Series 

     Using Commas

     More Using Commas

     Punctuation Paintball

5. Use correct capitalization.

     Capitalization Quiz

6. Use various parts of speech, such as nouns, pronouns and verbs (regular and irregular).

     Grammer Gorillas


     Parts of Speech

     Wacky Web Tales

7. Use prepositions and prepositional phrases.

8. Use adverbs.

     Adjectives and Adverbs

     Using Adverbs

9. Use objective and nominative case pronouns.

10. Use indefinite and relative pronouns.

11. Use conjunctions and interjections.


1. Generate a topic, assigned or personal interest, and open-ended questions for research and develop a plan for gathering information.

2. Locate sources and gather relevant information from multiple sources (e.g., school library catalogs, online databases, electronic resources and Internet-based resources).

     School Library Sites


3. Identify important information found in sources and paraphrase the findings in a systematic way (e.g., notes, outlines, charts, tables or graphic organizers).

     Take Notes

4. Compare and contrast important findings and select sources to support central ideas, concepts and themes.

5. Define plagiarism and acknowledge sources of information.

     Bibliography Format

    Citation Machine

6. Use a variety of communication techniques, including oral, visual, written or multimedia reports, to present information gathered.

Communications: Oral and Visual

1. Demonstrate active listening strategies (e.g., asking focused questions, responding to cues, making visual contact).

2. Interpret the main idea and draw conclusions from oral presentations and visual media.

3. Identify the speaker's purpose in presentations and visual media (e.g., to inform, to entertain, to persuade).

4. Discuss how facts and opinions are used to shape the opinions of listeners and viewers.

5. Demonstrate an understanding of the rules of the English language and select language appropriate to purpose and audience.

6. Use clear diction, pitch, tempo and tone, and adjust volume and tempo to stress important ideas.

7. Adjust speaking content according to the needs of the situation, setting and audience.

8. Deliver informational presentations (e.g., expository, research) that:
a. demonstrate an understanding of the topic and present events or ideas in a logical sequence;
b. support the main idea with relevant facts, details, examples, quotations, statistics, stories and anecdotes;
c. organize information, including a clear introduction, body and conclusion and follow common organizational structures when appropriate (e.g., cause-effect, compare-contrast);
d. use appropriate visual materials (e.g., diagrams, charts, illustrations) and available technology; and
e. draw from several sources and identify sources used.

9. Deliver formal and informal descriptive presentations recalling an event or personal experience that convey relevant information and descriptive details.

10. Deliver persuasive presentations that:
a. establish a clear position;
b. include relevant evidence to support a position and to address potential concerns of listeners; and
c. follow common organizational structures when appropriate (e.g., cause-effect, compare-contrast, problem-solution).





Number, Number Sense and Operations


1. Use models and visual representation to develop the concept of ratio as part-to-part and part-to-whole, and the concept of percent as part-to-whole.


     Finding the Percent of a Number

     Finding Percents

2. Use various forms of "one" to demonstrate the equivalence of fractions; e.g., 18/24 = 9/12 x 2/2 = 3/4 x 6/6.

     Fishy Fractions

3. Identify and generate equivalent forms of fractions, decimals and percents.

     Equivalent Fractions

     Equivalent Fractions 2

     Equivalent Fractions 3

     Fraction Decimal Conversions

     Comparing Fractions

     Fraction and Decimal Equivalents

     Fraction Frenzey

     Rename in Lowest Term

     Fraction Four

     Fraction, Decimal, Percent Jeopardy

     The Decifractator
     Equivalent Fractions by Harcourt

     Fraction Sorter


     Pizza Fractions

     Kids Math Fractions

     Fresh Baked Fractions

     Fraction Vocabulary

     Fraction Four

     Fraction Test

4. Round decimals to a given place value and round fractions (including mixed numbers) to the nearest half.

5. Recognize and identify perfect squares and their roots.

6. Represent and compare numbers less than 0 by extending the number line and using familiar applications; e.g., temperature, owing money.

     Space Coupe to the Rescue game

The change exchange game-National City

7. Use commutative, associative, distributive, identity and inverse properties to simplify and perform computations.

     Multiplication Strategies

8. Identify and use relationships between operations to solve problems.

9. Use order of operations, including use of parentheses, to simplify numerical expressions.

     Lesson on Order of Operations

10. Justify why fractions need common denominators to be added or subtracted.

     Adding Fractions

     Fishy Fractions

11. Explain how place value is related to addition and subtraction of decimals; e.g., 0.2 + 0.14; the two tenths is added to the one tenth because they are both tenths.

     Virtal Base Blocks

12. Use physical models, points of reference, and equivalent forms to add and subtract commonly used fractions with like and unlike denominators and decimals.

     Fishy Fractions

     AAA Math Fractions

     AAA Math Decimals

     Adding and Subtracting Decimals

     Adding Fractions

     Visual Fractions

13. Estimate the results of computations involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals, using a variety of strategies.

     AAA Rounding and Estimating


1. Identify and select appropriate units to measure angles; i.e., degrees.

     Star Gazing

     Virtual Geoboard

     Measure Angles

     Protractor and Angles

2. Identify paths between points on a grid or coordinate plane and compare the lengths of the paths; e.g., shortest path, paths of equal length.

3. Demonstrate and describe the differences between covering the faces (surface area) and filling the interior (volume) of three-dimensional objects.

     Surface Area and Volume

     3D Boxes

     Making Measurements

4. Demonstrate understanding of the differences among linear units, square units and cubic units.

     Metric Units for Measuring

     Customary Units for Measuring

5. Make conversions within the same measurement system while performing computations.

6. Use strategies to develop formulas for determining perimeter and area of triangles, rectangles and parallelograms, and volume of rectangular prisms.

     Perimeter and Area of Polygons

     Triangle Explorer

     Interactive Area and Perimeter Activity

     Perimeter of a Rectangle

     Calculating the Area of a Triangle

     Area and Perimeter

     Fence Me In

7.Use benchmark angles (e.g.; 45º, 90º, 120º) to estimate the measure of angles, and use a tool to measure and draw angles.

     What's My Angle

     Virtual Protractor

Geometry and Spatial Sense

1. Draw circles, and identify and determine relationships among the radius, diameter, center and circumference; e.g., radius is half the diameter, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter is an approximation of pi.

     Mrs. Glosser's Math Goodies -  Circumference of a Circle

2. Use standard language to describe line, segment, ray, angle, skew, parallel and perpendicular.

     Identifying Angels

3. Label vertex, rays, interior and exterior for an angle.

4. Describe and use properties of congruent figures to solve problems.

5. Use physical models to determine the sum of the interior angles of triangles and quadrilaterals.


     Angle Activities

6. Extend understanding of coordinate system to include points whose x or y values may be negative numbers.

     General Coordinates Game

     Maze Game

     What's the Point

7. Understand that the measure of an angle is determined by the degree of rotation of an angle side rather than the length of either side.

     What's My Angle

     Banana Hunt

8. Predict what three-dimensional object will result from folding a two-dimensional net, then confirm the prediction by folding the net.


Patterns, Functions and Algebra

1. Justify a general rule for a pattern or a function by using physical materials, visual representations, words, tables or graphs.

     Whole Number Cruncher

     Find the Rule Game

2. Use calculators or computers to develop patterns, and generalize them using tables and graphs.

     Function Machine

     Mean Green Machine

3. Use variables as unknown quantities in general rules when describing patterns and other relationships.

     Interactive Function Machine

     Weigh the WngDoodles

4. Create and interpret the meaning of equations and inequalities representing problem situations.

     ReviseWise Problem Solving

5. Model problems with physical materials and visual representations, and use models, graphs and tables to draw conclusions and make predictions.

     Bar Graph

     Circle Graph

     Create a Graph

6.Describe how the quantitative change in a variable affects the value of a related variable; e.g., describe how the rate of growth varies over time, based upon data in a table or graph.

     How it All Stacks Up

Data Analysis and Probability

1. Read, construct and interpret frequency tables, circle graphs and line graphs.

     Pie Charts

     Circle Graphs

     Line Graphs

     Using Line Graphs

     Create a Graph

2. Select and use a graph that is appropriate for the type of data to be displayed; e.g., numerical vs. categorical data, discrete vs. continuous data.

     Data Picking

3. Read and interpret increasingly complex displays of data, such as double bar graphs.

4. Determine appropriate data to be collected to answer questions posed by students or teacher, collect and display data, and clearly communicate findings.

5. Modify initial conclusions, propose and justify new interpretations and predictions as additional data are collected.

6. Determine and use the range, mean, median and mode, and explain what each does and does not indicate about the set of data.

     ReviseWise Mean, Median, Mode

7. List and explain all possible outcomes in a given situation.

     Disguise Combos Game

8. Identify the probability of events within a simple experiment, such as three chances out of eight.

     Fish Tank

9. Use 0, 1 and ratios between 0 and 1 to represent the probability of outcomes for an event, and associate the ratio with the likelihood of the outcome.

10. Compare what should happen (theoretical/expected results) with what did happen (experimental/actual results) in a simple experiment.

     Box Model

11. Make predictions based on experimental and theoretical probabilities

     Math Probabilities





Earth and Space Sciences

1. Describe how night and day are caused by Earth’s rotation.

    Earth and Moon Match Up

    Moon Phases

2. Explain that Earth is one of several planets to orbit the Sun, and that the Moon orbits Earth.

     The Nine Planets

     StarChild: The Solar System

     Earth, Sun and Moon

     Sun, Earth and Moon in Motion

3. Describe the characteristics of Earth and its orbit about the Sun (e.g., three fourths of Earth’s surface covered by a layer of water [some of it frozen], the entire planet surrounded by a thin blanket of air, elliptical orbit, tilted axis, spherical planet).

     StarChild:  Earth the Water Planet

4. Explain that stars are like the Sun, some being smaller and some larger, but so far away that they look like points of light.

     StarChild the Universe

5. Explain how the supply of many non-renewable resources is limited and can be extended through reducing, reusing and recycling but cannot be extended indefinitely.

     Renewable and Non-renewable Resources Quiz

6. Investigate ways Earth’s renewable resources (e.g., fresh water, air, wildlife and trees) can be maintained.

     Renewable Energy from Energy Ant

     Renewable and Non-renewable Resources Quiz

Life Sciences

1. Describe the role of producers in the transfer of energy entering ecosystems as sunlight to chemical energy through photosynthesis.

     Illuminating Photosynthesis

2. Explain how almost all kinds of animal’s food can be traced back to plants.

3. Trace the organization of simple food chains and food webs (e.g., producers, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores and decomposers).

     Hams Hall Pond

4. Summarize that organisms can survive only in ecosystems in which their needs can be met (e.g., food, water, shelter, air, carrying capacity and waste disposal). The world has different ecosystems and distinct ecosystems support the lives of different types of organisms.

     Biomes of the World

     Helping Plants Grow Well

5. Support how an organism’s patterns of behavior are related to the nature of that organism’s ecosystem, including the kinds and numbers of other organisms present, the availability of food and resources, and the changing physical characteristics of the ecosystem.

6. Analyze how all organisms, including humans, cause changes in their ecosystems and how these changes can be beneficial, neutral or detrimental (e.g., beaver ponds, earthworm burrows, grasshoppers eating all plants, people planting and cutting trees, and people introducing a new species).

     Biomes of the World

Physical Sciences

1. Define temperature as the measure of thermal energy and describe the way it is measured.

     The Energy Story

2. Trace how thermal energy can transfer from one object to another by conduction.

3. Describe that electrical current in a circuit can produce thermal energy, light, sound and/or magnetic forces.

     Intro to Electricity and Magnetism

     The Electricity Book Part 2

     Energy Quest


     Watered Down Electricity

4. Trace how electrical current travels by creating a simple electric circuit that will light a bulb.

     Circuits and Conductors

5. Explore and summarize observations of the transmission, bending (refraction) and reflection of light.

     Refraction to Light

     Reflection of Light

6. Describe and summarize observations of the transmission, reflection, and absorption of sound.

     What is Sound?

7. Describe that changing the rate of vibration can vary the pitch of a sound.

     What is Sound?

Science and Technology

1. Investigate positive and negative impacts of human activity and technology on the environment.

2. Revise an existing design used to solve a problem based on peer review.

3. Explain how the solution to one problem may create other problems.

Scientific Inquiry

1. Select and safely use the appropriate tools to collect data when conducting investigations and communicating findings to others(e.g., thermometers, timers, balances, spring scales, magnifiers, microscopes and other appropriate tools).

2. Evaluate observations and measurements made by other people and identify reasons for any discrepancies.

3. Use evidence and observations to explain and communicate the results of investigations.

4. Identify one or two variables in a simple experiment.

5. Identify potential hazards and/or precautions involved in an investigation.

6. Explain why results of an experiment are sometimes different (e.g., because of unexpected differences in what is being investigated, unrealized differences in the methods used or in the circumstances in which the investigation was carried out, and because of errors in observations).

Scientific Ways of Knowing

1. Summarize how conclusions and ideas change as new knowledge is gained.

2. Develop descriptions, explanations and models using evidence to defend/support findings.

3. Explain why an experiment must be repeated by different people or at different times or places and yield consistent results before the results are accepted.

4. Identify how scientists use different kinds of ongoing investigations depending on the questions they are trying to answer (e.g., observations of things or events in nature, data collection, controlled experiments).

5. Keep records of investigations and observations that are understandable weeks or months later.

6. Identify a variety of scientific and technological work that people of all ages, backgrounds and groups perform.



Social Studies



1. Create time lines and identify possible relationships between events.

     Timeline Generator


2. Explain how American Indians settled the continent and why different nations of Indians interacted with their environment in different ways.

     First Americans

3. Explain why European countries explored and colonized North America.

     An Adventure to the New World

     Plymouth Colony

     The First Thanksgiving

4. Describe the lasting effects of Spanish, French and English colonization in North America including cultural patterns evident today such as language, food, traditions and architecture.

5. Explain how the United States became independent from Great Britain.

     Causes for the Revolution

     The Shot Heard Round the World

     Liberty!  The American Revolution

6. Explain the impact of settlement, industrialization and transportation on the expansion of the United States.

     America on the Move

People in Societies

1. Compare the cultural practices and products of diverse groups in North America including
a. artistic expressions
b. religion
c. language
d. food
e. clothing
f. shelter

     Celebrate the World

     Hispanic Heritage

2. Compare life on Indian reservations today with the cultural traditions of American Indians before the reservation system.

3. Describe the experiences of African-Americans under the institution of slavery.

     Understanding Slavery

4. Describe the waves of immigration to North America and the areas from which people came in each wave.

5. Compare reasons for immigration to North America with the reality immigrants experienced upon arrival.

     Immigration: Stories of Yesterday and Today


1. Use coordinates of latitude and longitude to determine the absolute location of points in North America.

     Color Landform atlas of the United States

     List of Latitude and Longitude of U.S. and Canadian Cities

     Look-Up Longitude and Latitude -USA

     Lost at Sea Game

     Where on Earth? Longitude and Latitude Game

2. Use maps to identify the location of
a. the three largest countries of North America
b. the 50 states of the United States
c. the Rocky and Appalachian mountain systems
d. the Mississippi, Rio Grande and St. Lawrence rivers
e. the Great Lakes

     GeoSense Game

     Geo Spy

     How Well Do You Know the Location of the 50 States?

     Puzzle Maps

     Label Maps

     Clue Maps

     All about the United States

     Major Rivers and Lakes

3. Describe and compare the landforms, climates, population, culture and economic characteristics of places and regions in North America.

4. Explain how climate is influenced by
a. earth-sun relationships
b. landforms
c. vegetation


5. Explain, by identifying patterns on thematic maps, how physical and human characteristics can be used to define regions in North America.

6. Use distribution maps to describe the patterns of renewable, nonrenewable and flow resources in North America including
a. forests
b. fertile soil
c. oil
d. coal
e. running water

7. Analyze reasons for conflict and cooperation among regions of North America including
a. trade
b. environmental issues
c. immigration

8. Explain how the characteristics of different physical environments affect human activities in North America.

9. Analyze the positive and negative consequences of human changes to the physical environment including
a. Great Lakes navigation
b. highway systems
c. irrigation
d. mining
e. introduction of new species

10. Use or construct maps of colonization and exploration to explain European influence in North America.


1. Compare different allocation methods for scarce goods and services such as prices, command, first-come-first-served, sharing equally, rationing and lottery.

2. Explain that individuals in all economies must answer the fundamental economic questions of what to produce, how to produce and for whom to produce.

     Hot Shot Business

3. Explain how education, specialization, capital goods and the division of labor affect productive capacity.

4. Explain how regions in North America become interdependent when they specialize in what they produce best and then trade with other regions inside and outside North America to increase the amount and variety of goods and services available.

5. Explain the general relationship between supply, demand and price in a competitive market.

     Supply and Demand

     Lemonade Stand Game

6. Explain why competition among producers/sellers results in lower costs and prices, higher product quality and better customer service.

7. Explain why competition among consumers/buyers results in higher product prices.


1. Explain major responsibilities of each of the three branches of the United States government
a. the legislative branch, headed by Congress, passes laws
b. the executive branch, headed by the president, carries out and enforces the laws made by Congress
c. the judicial branch, headed by the Supreme Court, interprets and applies the law

     Branches of Government

     The American Presidency

     Judicial Quiz

2. Explain the essential characteristics of American democracy including
a. the people are the source of the government’s authority
b. all citizens have the right and responsibility to vote and influence the decisions of the government
c. the government is run directly by the people or through elected representatives
d. the powers of government are limited by law
e. basic rights of individuals are guaranteed by the Constitution

     Inside the Voting Booth

     Election Process

     Electing a President

3. Explain the significance of the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.

     Historical Documents

Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities

1. Explain how an individual acquires United States citizenship
a. birth
b. naturalization


2. Explain the obligations of upholding the United States Constitution including
a. obeying laws
b. paying taxes
c. serving on juries
d. registering for selective service

3. Explain the significance of the rights that are protected by the First Amendment including
a. freedom of religion
b. freedom of speech
c. freedom of the press
d. right of petition and assembly

     First Amendment

Social Studies Skills and Methods

1. Obtain information from a variety of print and electronic sources and analyze its reliability including
a. accuracy of facts
b. credentials of the source

      World Fact Book

      Who's Who

2. Locate information in a variety of sources using key words, related articles and cross-references.


3. Differentiate between primary and secondary sources.

     Library Research: finding Primary Sources

     Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources

     Do You Know the Difference

     Identifying Primary and Secondary Sources

4. Read information critically in order to identify
a. the author
b. the author's perspective
c. the purpose

     Author's Point of View

     Author's Purpose

     Author's Purpose

     Indenifying the Author's Purpose

     Different Types of Text

     Author's Purpose Game

5. Compare points of agreement and disagreement among sources.

6. Draw inferences from relevant information.

     Drawing Inferences

     Inference Battleship

     Practice Making Inferences

     What is an Inference

     Making Inferences and Drawing Conclusions

     Drawing Conclusions

7. Organize key ideas by taking notes that paraphrase or summarize.

     Take Notes

     Note Taker

8. Communicate research findings using line graphs and tables.

     Line Graphs

     Using Line Graphs

9. Use a problem-solving/decision-making process which includes
a. identifying a problem
b. gathering information
c. listing and considering options
d. considering advantages and disadvantages of options
e. choosing and implementing a solution
f. developing criteria for judging its effectiveness
g. evaluating the effectiveness of the solution.


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