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Fourth Grade

Fourth Grade

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English and Language Arts - Reading


Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition and Fluency

Acquisition of Vocabulary

1. Determine the meaning of unknown words by using a variety of context clues, including word, sentence and paragraph clues.

      Word Study Clues

      Context Clues

2. Use context clues to determine the meaning of synonyms, antonyms, homophones, homonyms and homographs.

     Homophones Quiz 1

     Homophones Quiz 2

     HomoPhones Quiz 3

     Easily Confused Words 1

     Easily Confused Words 2

     Homophones Challenge


     A Feast of Homonyms


     Multiple Meanings

     Synonyms, Antonyms, and Homonyms at BrainPOP

     Antonyms Matching


     Antonym Alley

     Synonyms Matching

     Say It Another Way

     Find a Synonym or Antonym

     Synonym Matching

     Synonym Matching

     Synonym Practice

     Antonyms Match Up

     Synonyms Match Up

     Rocket to the Moon

3. Recognize the difference between the meanings of connotation and denotation.

4. Identify and apply the meaning of the terms synonym, antonym, homophone and homograph.

     Synonyms, Antonyms, and Homonyms at BrainPOP

     Antonyms Matching


     Antonym Alley

     Synonyms Matching

     Say It Another Way

     Find a Snynonm or Antonym

     Synonym Matching

     Synonym Matching

     Synonym Practice

     Antonyms Match Up

     Synonyms Match Up

     Rocket to the Moon

5. Identify and understand new uses of words and phrases in text, such as similes and metaphors.

     Similies and Metaphors

     Figurative Language Quiz

6. Identify word origins to determine the meaning of unknown words and phrases.

     The Toughest Word game on the Web

7. Identify the meanings of prefixes, suffixes and roots and their various forms to determine the meanings of words.

     The Suffix and Prefix Machine

     Using Suffixes

     Using Prefixes


     Prefix Root and Suffix

     Make New Words - Prefix


     Roots and Prefixes

     Using Suffixes


     Make New Words Suffixes

     Suffixes Practice


     Rooting Out the Word

     Root Words

8. Identify the meanings of abbreviations.

     Education Acronyms/Abbreviations

9. Determine the meanings and pronunciations of unknown words by using dictionaries, glossaries, technology and textual features, such as definitional footnotes or sidebars.

     Know Play

     Kids Search Tools

Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies

1. Establish and adjust purposes for reading, including to find out, to understand, to interpret, to enjoy and to solve problems.

     Author's Purpose

2. Predict and support predictions using an awareness of new vocabulary, text structures and familiar plot patterns.

     Making Predictions

     Make Predictions

3. Compare and contrast information on a single topic or theme across different text and non-text resources.

     Compare and Contrast Guide

4. Summarize important information in texts to demonstrate comprehension.

     Summarize As You Read

5. Make inferences or draw conclusions about what has been read and support those conclusions with textual evidence.

     Inference Battleship


     What Can You Infer?

6. Select, create and use graphic organizers to interpret textual information.

     Graphic Organizer Maker

     Education Place

     Literacy Elements Mapping

     Create a Venn Diagram

     Venn Diagram 3 Circles

7. Answer literal, inferential and evaluative questions to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and electronic and visual media.

     Online Reading Assessment 2005

     Online Reading Assessment 2004

     Online Reading Assessment 2003

8. Monitor own comprehension by adjusting speed to fit the purpose, or by skimming, scanning, reading on or looking back.

9. List questions and search for answers within the text to construct meaning.

     Asking Questions

10. Use criteria to choose independent reading materials (e.g., personal interest, knowledge of authors and genres or recommendations from others).

11. Independently read books for various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain information or to perform a task).

     Stories Online

Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text

1. Make inferences about informational text from the title page, table of contents and chapter headings.

     Parts of a Book


     Parts of a Book

     Parts of a book Quiz

2. Summarize main ideas in informational text, using supporting details as appropriate.

     Supporting Details

     Main Idea Practice 1

     Identifying the Main Idea

     Summarize As You Read

3. Locate important details about a topic using different sources of information including books, magazines, newspapers and online resources.

     Columbus Dispatch

     Newark Advocate

     Zanesville Times Recorder

     Lancaster Eagle Gazette


     Kids Tools

4. Identify examples of cause and effect used in informational text.

     Cause and Effect Graphic Organizers

     Cause and Effect

     Cause and Effect Actions

5. Draw conclusions from information in maps, charts, graphs and diagrams.

     What's on a Map

6. Clarify steps in a set of instructions or procedures for completeness.

7. Distinguish fact from opinion.

     Fact or Opinion

     Fact or Opinion Quiz 1

     Fact or Opinion Quiz 2

     Fact or Opinion

     Fact or Opinion

     Fact or Opinion ?

Reading Applications: Literary Text

1. Describe the thoughts, words and interactions of characters.

2. Identify the influence of setting on the selection.

3. Identify the main incidents of a plot sequence, identifying the major conflict and its resolution.

     Story Time

     Plot Diagram

     Circle Plot

4. Identify the speaker and recognize the difference between first- and third-person narration.


5. Determine the theme and whether it is implied or stated directly.

6. Identify and explain the defining characteristics of literary forms and genres, including poetry, drama, fables, fantasies, chapter books, fiction and non-fiction.

     Aesop's Fables

     Fiction and Nonfiction


     Tales From Around the World

7. Explain how an author's choice of words appeals to the senses and suggests mood.

8. Identify figurative language in literary works, including idioms, similes and metaphors.


     Figurative Language

     Similies and Metaphors


     Common Terms

     Figurative Language Quiz

English and Language Arts- Writing



Writing Processes

1. Generate writing ideas through discussions with others and from printed material.

     Writing Prompts With Pictures

     Writing Topics

2. State and develop a clear main idea for writing.

3. Develop a purpose and audience for writing.

     A Purpose for Writing

     What is The Author Purpose

4. Use organizational strategies (e.g., brainstorming, lists, webs and Venn diagrams) to plan writing.

     Venn Diagram


     Graphic Organizers From Education Place

     Webbing Tool

5. Organize writing, beginning with an introduction, body and a resolution of plot, followed by a closing statement or a summary of important ideas and details.

     Story Map

     Webbing Tool

6. Vary simple, compound and complex sentence structures.

     English Eggs

     Sentence Sequencing

     Putting Sentence Together

7. Create paragraphs with topic sentences and supporting sentences that are marked by indentation) and are linked by transitional words and phrases.

     Topic Sentences


8. Vary language and style as appropriate to audience and purpose.

9. Use available technology to compose text.

     Magnetic Words

     Riddle Interactive

     Write Acrostice Poems

     Comic Creator

     Write a Diamante Poem

     Create a Flip Book

     Letter Generator

     Letter Poem Creator

     Postcard Creator

     Printing Press

     Shape Poems

     Stapeless Book

10. Reread and assess writing for clarity, using a variety of methods (e.g., writer's circle or author's chair).

11. Add descriptive words and details and delete extraneous information.

     List of Adjectives


12. Rearrange words, sentences and paragraphs to clarify meaning.

13. Use resources and reference materials, including dictionaries, to select more effective vocabulary.

     Britannica Online

     Know Play


     Kids Tools

14. Proofread writing and edit to improve conventions (e.g., grammar, spelling, punctuation and capitalization) and identify and correct fragments and run-ons.

     Power Proof Reading

     Grammer Activities

     Online Writing Assessment 2005

     Online Writing Assessment 2004

     Online Writing Assessment 2003

15. Apply tools (e.g., rubric, checklist and feedback) to judge the quality of writing.


16. Prepare for publication (e.g., for display or for sharing with others) writing that follows a format appropriate to the purpose using techniques such as electronic resources and graphics to enhance the final product.

Writing Applications

1. Write narratives that sequence events, including descriptive details and vivid language to develop plot, characters and setting and to establish a point of view.

2. Write responses to novels, stories and poems that include a simple interpretation of a literary work and support judgments with specific references to the original text and to prior knowledge.

3. Write formal and informal letters (e.g., thank you notes, letters of request) that follow letter format (e.g., date, proper salutation, body, closing and signature), include important information and demonstrate a sense of closure.

     Writing a Friendly Letter

     Letter Generator

     Postcard Creator

4. Write informational reports that include facts and examples and present important details in a logical order.

5. Produce informal writings (e.g., messages, journals, notes and poems) for various purposes.

     Shape Poems

     Letter Poem Creator

     Write Acrostice Poems

     Note Taker

     Write a Diamante Poem

Writing Conventions

1. Write legibly in cursive, spacing letters, words and sentences appropriately.

     Zane Blosser Cursive

2. Spell high-frequency words correctly.

     Letter Bugs

     Harcourt Brace Spelling

     Space Trash

     Fun City

     Gator Smash em Game

     Fearless Frieda

     Look Cover Spell

     Spell a Roo

3. Spell plurals and inflectional endings correctly.

     Fun With Plurals

4. Spell roots, suffixes and prefixes correctly.

     Prefix Suffix Root Catch

     Rooting Out the Word

     Root Words

5. Use commas, end marks, apostrophes and quotation marks correctly.

     Commas is a Series

     Comma Usage

     Interactive exercises on using commas - Exercise 1 - Exercise 2 - Exercise 3 - Exercise 4 - Exercise 5

     Using Commas

     Punctuation Marks

     Using End Marks

     Using Punctuation

     Punctuation Paintball

6. Use correct capitalization.


7. Use various parts of speech such as nouns, pronouns and verbs (e.g., regular and irregular, past, present and future).

     Grammer Gorillas

     Using Adjectives

     Parts of Speech

     Noun Dunk

     Parts of Speech

     Parts of Speech Quiz

     Verb Power

     Basic Sentence Parts


     Wacky Web Tales

8. Use conjunctions and interjections.


     Conjunctions Crossword

     Conjunctions Quiz

9. Use adverbs.

     Adjectives and Adverbs

     Using Adverbs

10. Use prepositions and prepositional phrases.

11. Use objective and nominative case pronouns.

12. Use subjects and verbs that are in agreement.

     Simple Subject

     Subject Verb Agreement

13. Use irregular plural nouns.

     Irregular Plurals

     Irregular Plurals 2

     Irregular Plurals of Nouns


1. Identify a topic and questions for research and develop a plan for gathering information.

     Choosing a Topic

     Science Fair Topics

2. Locate sources and collect relevant information from multiple sources (e.g., school library catalogs, online databases, electronic resources and Internet-based resources).

     School Library

     Perry County Library


3. Identify important information found in the sources and summarize important findings.


     Old Farmers Almanac

     Facts About the United States

     Know Play

     Today in History

     World Fact Book

4. Create categories to sort and organize relevant information charts, tables or graphic organizers.

     Bar Chart


     Create a Graph

     Venn Diagram


     Graphic Organizers From Education Place

     Webbing Tool

5. Discuss the meaning of plagiarism and create a list of sources.

     Bibliography Format

     Citation Machine

6. Use a variety of communication techniques, including oral, visual, written or multimedia reports, to present information gathered.

Communications: Oral and Visual

1. Demonstrate active listening strategies (e.g., asking focused questions, responding to cues, making visual contact).

2. Recall the main idea, including relevant supporting details, and identify the purpose of presentations and visual media.

     Main Idea Practice

3. Distinguish between a speaker's opinions and verifiable facts.

     Fact or Opinion Game

     Fact or Opinion Game 2

4. Demonstrate an understanding of the rules of the English language.

5. Select language appropriate to purpose and audience.

6. Use clear diction and tone, and adjust volume and tempo to stress important ideas.

7. Adjust speaking content according to the needs of the audience.

8. Deliver informational presentations (e.g., expository, research) that:
a. present events or ideas in a logical sequence and maintain a clear focus;
b. demonstrate an understanding of the topic;
c. include relevant facts, details, examples, quotations, statistics, stories and anecdotes to clarify and explain information;
d. organize information to include a clear introduction, body and conclusion;
e. use appropriate visual materials (e.g., diagrams, charts, illustrations) and available technology; and
f. draw from several sources and identify sources used.

9. Deliver formal and informal descriptive presentations recalling an event or personal experience that convey relevant information and descriptive details.




Number, Number Sense and Operations

1. Identify and generate equivalent forms of fractions and decimals. For example:
a. Connect physical, verbal and symbolic representations of fractions, decimals and whole numbers; e.g., 1/2, 5/10, "five tenths," 0.5, shaded rectangles with half, and five tenths.
b. Understand and explain that ten tenths is the same as one whole in both fraction and decimal form.

     Fishy Fractions - Equivalent Fractions

     Equivalent Fractions

     Reducing Fractions

     Base Blocks

     Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Half

     Fishy Fractions - Improper Fractions

     Fishy Fractions Simplest Form

     Fishy Fractions - Fractions and Decimal Match

     Fraction Frenzy

     The Decifractator

     Count Decimals

     Death to Decimals

     Rename in Lowest Terms


     Adding Decimals

     Decimal Number Line Tool

2. Use place value structure of the base-ten number system to read, write, represent and compare whole numbers through millions and decimals through thousandths.

     Place Value Topics

     Big Numbers

     Place Value Video


     Place Value

     Free Math Test Place Value

     Builder Ted

     Place Values

     Virtual Base Blocks

     Identify place Value

     Decimal Numberline

     Sorting Decimals

3. Round whole numbers to a given place value.

     Rounding Flashcards

     Round Numbers - Click on a Level Under Round Numbers

4. Identify and represent factors and multiples of whole numbers through 100, and classify numbers as prime or composite.

     Bobber's Farm

     Factorize 2

     Skip Counting

     Skip Counting Factors

5. Use models and points of reference to compare commonly used fractions.

     Fishy Fractions Comparing Fractions

     Fraction Pointer

     Fraction Sorter

     Sorting Fractions

     No Matter What Shape Your Fractions Are In

     Comparing Like Fractions

     Comparing Unlike Fractions

6. Use associative and distributive properties to simplify and perform computations; e.g., use left to right multiplication and the distributive property to find an exact answer without paper and pencil, such as 5 x 47 = 5 x 40 + 5 x 7 = 200 + 35 = 235.

     Multiplication Strategies

     Times Table Tester

     Are You a Math Magician

     Dragable Multiplication


     Number Cop

     Save the Clown Fish

7. Recognize that division may be used to solve different types of problem situations and interpret the meaning of remainders; e.g., situations involving measurement, money.

     Division Activity

     Number Line Math

     Division Machine

8. Solve problems involving counting money and making change, using both coins and paper bills.

     Change Maker

     Learn To Count Money

     Money Program

     Spending Spree

     Cash Out

     Using Money

     Math Worksheet 3

     Math Worksheet 4

     Math Worksheet 5

     Math Worksheet 6

     Math With Money

     School Store

     Practice Counting Money

     Adding Dimes, Nickles and Pennies

     Change It

     Counting Money

     Discovering Coin Values

     Let's Go Shopping

     Making Change

     Money Flash Cards

     Counting Money

     Show Me the Money

The change exchange game-National City

9. Estimate the results of computations involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals, using a variety of strategies.

     Comparison Estimator


     Estimation Valley Golf


     Guess the Number

     More or Less

10. Use physical models, visual representations, and paper and pencil to add and subtract decimals and commonly used fractions with like denominators.

     Fishy Fractions

     Bobber's Farm

     Adding and Subtracting Decimals

11. Develop and explain strategies for performing computations mentally.

12. Analyze and solve multi-step problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division using an organized approach, and verify and interpret results with respect to the original problem.

     Problem Solving

     Math Play Ground Hoops

13. Use a variety of methods and appropriate tools for computing with whole numbers; e.g., mental math, paper and pencil, and calculator.

     Online Calculators

     Basic Calculator

14. Demonstrate fluency in adding and subtracting whole numbers and in multiplying and dividing whole numbers by 1- and 2-digit numbers and multiples of ten.

     The Table Trees

     Multiplication Hidden Picture

     A+ Math

     Math Playground Hoops

     Callum's Addition Pyramid

     Mathblox Game

     Leon's Math Dojo



     Division Mini Lesson


     Capitan Nick Knack

     That's a Fact

     Count on Convict

     Base Blocks Addition

     Base Blocks Subtraction

     Addition Machine

     Addition Surprise

     Connect Four

     Checking Subtraction


     Spacy Math

     Mental Math


1. Relate the number of units to the size of the units used to measure an object; e.g., compare the number of cups to fill a pitcher to the number of quarts to fill the same pitcher.

     Measurement Equivalents

2. Demonstrate and describe perimeter as surrounding and area as covering a two-dimensional shape, and volume as filling a three-dimensional object.

     Shape Explorer

     Area and Perimeter

     Shape Surveyor

     Calculate the Perimeter

     Spy Guys Interactive - Area and Perimeter -  Skip Intro, then select Lessons, click on Lesson 12 and/or 13

3. Identify and select appropriate units to measure:
a. perimeter – string or links (inches or centimeters).
b. area – tiles (square inches or square centimeters).
c. volume – cubes (cubic inches or cubic centimeters).

4. Develop and use strategies to find perimeter using string or links, area using tiles or a grid, and volume using cubes; e.g., count squares to find area of regular or irregular shapes on a grid, layer cubes in a box to find its volume.

     Shape Explorer

     Area and Perimeter

5. Make simple unit conversions within a measurement system; e.g., inches to feet, kilograms to grams, quarts to gallons.

     Customary Units Match Game

     Metric Units Match Game

     Unit Conversions

     Weights and Measures


6. Write, solve and verify solutions to multi-step problems involving measurement.

Geometry and Spatial Sense

1. Identify, describe and model intersecting, parallel and perpendicular lines and line segments; e.g., use straws or other material to model lines.

     Angle and Parrel Lines

2. Describe, classify, compare and model two- and three-dimensional objects using their attributes.

     Platonic Solids

     Prisms, Pyramids, Cones and Cylinders

     Three Dimensional

     Identifying Shapes and Lines

     Shape Quiz

3. Identify similarities and differences of quadrilaterals; e.g., squares, rectangles, parallelograms and trapezoids.

     Polygon Playground

4. Identify and define triangles based on angle measures (equiangular, right, acute and obtuse triangles) and side lengths (isosceles, equilateral and scalene triangles).

     Kinds of Angles

     Alligator Angles

     Types of Angles

     Identify Triangles

5. Describe points, lines and planes, and identify models in the environment.

6. Specify locations and plot ordered pairs on a coordinate plane, using first quadrant points.

     Simple Coordinate Games

     Simple Maze Game

     What's the Point

     Billy Bug

     General Coordinates Game

7. Identify, describe and use reflections (flips), rotations (turns), and translations (slides) in solving geometric problems; e.g., use transformations to determine if 2 shapes are congruent.

     Dam Jammer Game

     Playing With Translations

     Playing With Rotations

     Playing With Reflections

     Flipping Monsters


     Tessellation Town

     Transformation Game

8. Use geometric models to solve problems in other areas of mathematics, such as number (multiplication/division) and measurement (area, perimeter, border).

Patterns, Functions and Algebra

1. Use models and words to describe, extend and make generalizations of patterns and relationships occurring in computation, numerical patterns, geometry, graphs and other applications.

     Number Patterns

     Whole Number Cruncher

     Find the Rule Game

2. Represent and analyze patterns and functions using words, tables and graphs.

3. Construct a table of values to solve problems associated with a mathematical relationship.

     Whole Number Cruncher

4. Use rules and variables to describe patterns and other relationships.

     Function Machine

     Function Machine

     Whole Number Cruncher

5. Represent mathematical relationships with equations or inequalities.

6. Describe how a change in one variable affects the value of a related variable; e.g., as one increases the other increases or as one increases the other decreases.

Data Analysis and Probability

1. Create a plan for collecting data for a specific purpose.

2. Represent and interpret data using tables, bar graphs, line plots and line graphs.

     Create a Graph

     Interpreting Data

     Virtual Bar Chart


     Line Graph  

     Bar Graphs

     Using Line Graphs

     Circle Graph

     Data Picking

     Interpreting a Bar Graph

     Bar Graph Lesson

     Line Graph Lesson

     Pictograph Lesson

3. Interpret and construct Venn diagrams to sort and describe data.

     Logic Zoo

     Venn Diagram Shape Sorter

     Create a Venn Diagram

4. Compare different representations of the same data to evaluate how well each representation shows important aspects of the data, and identify appropriate ways to display the data.

5. Propose and explain interpretations and predictions based on data displayed in tables, charts and graphs.

6. Describe the characteristics of a set of data based on a graphical representation, such as range of the data, clumps of data, and holes in the data.

7. Identify the median of a set of data and describe what it indicates about the data.

     Mean Median and Mode

     Mean Median and Mode Calculator

     Mean Median Mode

8. Use range, median and mode to make comparisons among related sets of data.


     Mean Median and Mode

     Mean Median Mode

9. Conduct simple probability experiments and draw conclusions from the results; e.g., rolling number cubes or drawing marbles from a bag.

     Box Model

     What Are Your Chances

10. Represent the likelihood of possible outcomes for chance situations; e.g., probability of selecting a red marble from a bag containing 3 red and 5 white marbles.

     Fish Tank

11. Relate the concepts of impossible and certain-to-happen events to the numerical values of 0 (impossible) and 1 (certain).

12. Place events in order of likelihood and use a diagram or appropriate language to compare the chance of each event occurring; e.g., impossible, unlikely, equal, likely, certain.

13. List and count all possible combinations using one member from each of several sets, each containing 2 or 3 members; e.g., the number of possible outfits from 3 shirts, 2 shorts and 2 pairs of shoes.

     Disguise Combos





Earth and Space Sciences

1. Explain that air surrounds us, takes up space, moves around us as wind, and may be measured as barometric pressure.


2. Identify how water exists in the air in different forms (e.g., in clouds, fog, rain, snow and hail).

3. Investigate how water changes from one state to another (e.g., freezing, melting, condensation, evaporation).


     The Water Cycle

     The Water Shed Game

     Weather - Click on Weather

     Water Cycle

4. Describe weather by measurable quantities such as temperature, wind direction, wind speed, precipitation, and barometric pressure.

     EdHead Weather 

     Weather Maker 

     Weather Symbols

     Weather Instruments

     Weather Instruments and Clouds

5. Record local weather information on a calendar or map and describe changes over a period of time (e.g., barometric pressure, temperature, precipitation symbols, cloud conditions).

     EdHead Weather

6. Trace how weather patterns generally move from west to east in the United States.

     Weather Map

     Weather Map  - Weather Underground

     National Forecast Maps

     Tips For Forecasting Weather

7. Describe the weather which accompanies cumulus, cumulonimbus, cirrus and stratus clouds.


     Cloud Clues

     Cloud Forecasting

     Cloud Matching Game

     Forecast the Weather By Studying Clouds

8. Describe how wind, water and ice shape and reshape Earth’s land surface by eroding rock and soil in some areas and depositing them in other areas producing characteristic landforms (e.g., dunes, deltas, glacial moraines).

9. Identify and describe how freezing, thawing and plant growth reshape the land surface by causing the weathering of rock.


     Breaking News

10. Describe evidence of changes on Earth’s surface in terms of slow processes (e.g., erosion, weathering, mountain building, deposition) and rapid processes (e.g. volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides).

Life Sciences

1. Compare the life cycles of different plants including germination, maturity, reproduction and death.

     The Great Plant Escape

     The Life Cycle Of Plants

     Zip's Plants

2. Relate plant structures to their specific functions (e.g., growth, survival and reproduction).

     Parts of a Flower

     The Great Plant Escape

     Zip's Plants

     Living Things Plants

     Trees are Terrific 

     The Secret Life of Trees

3. Classify common plants according to their characteristics (e.g., tree leaves, flowers, seeds, roots, stems).

     Meet the Plant Part

4. Observe and explore that fossils provide evidence about plants that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time.

     Ohio Fossils

5. Describe how organisms interact with one another in various ways (e.g., many plants depend on animals for carrying pollen or dispersing seeds).

Physical Sciences

1. Identify characteristics of a simple physical change (e.g., heating or cooling can change water from one state to another and the change is reversible).

     Changing Matter

     Changing Materials

2. Identify characteristics of a simple chemical change. When a new material is made by combining two or more materials, it has chemical properties that are different from the original materials (e.g., burning paper, vinegar and baking soda).

     Changing Materials

3. Describe objects by the properties of the materials from which they are made and that these properties can be used to separate or sort a group of objects (e.g., paper, glass, plastic, metal).

     Material Matters

     Sorting and Using Materials

     Characteristics of Materials

4. Explain that matter has different states (e.g., solid, liquid and gas) and that each state has distinct physical properties.

     Solids Liquids and Gases

     Solids Liquids and Gases

     States of Matter

     Changing States

     Matter - Click on Matter

     Gases Around Us

5. Compare ways the temperature of an object can be changed (e.g., rubbing, heating, bending of metal).

Science and Technology

1. Explain how technology from different areas (e.g., transportation, communication, nutrition, healthcare, agriculture, entertainment, manufacturing) has improved human lives.

     Science and Technology in Ohio

2. Investigate how technology and inventions change to meet peoples’ needs and wants.

3. Describe, illustrate and evaluate the design process used to solve a problem.

Scientific Inquiry

1. Select the appropriate tools and use relevant safety procedures to measure and record length, weight, volume, temperature and area in metric and English units.

     Measuring Matter Kidspiration Activity

     Measurement Movie

2. Analyze a series of events and/or simple daily or seasonal cycles, describe the patterns and infer the next likely occurrence.

3. Develop, design and conduct safe, simple investigations or experiments to answer questions.

4. Explain the importance of keeping conditions the same in an experiment.

5. Describe how comparisons may not be fair when some conditions are not kept the same between experiments.

6. Formulate instructions and communicate data in a manner that allows others to understand and repeat an investigation or experiment.

Scientific Ways of Knowing

1. Differentiate fact from opinion and explain that scientists do not rely on claims or conclusions unless they are backed by observations that can be confirmed.

2. Record the results and data from an investigation and make a reasonable explanation.

3. Explain discrepancies in an investigation using evidence to support findings.

4. Explain why keeping records of observations and investigations is important.



Social Studies



1. Construct time lines with evenly spaced intervals for years, decades and centuries to show the order of significant events in Ohio history.

     Timeline Generator


2. Describe the earliest settlements in Ohio including those of prehistoric peoples.

     The Evolution of Ohio

     Prehistory of Ohio

3. Explain the causes and effects of the frontier wars of the 1790s, including the Battle of Fallen Timbers, on American Indians in Ohio and the United States.

     American Indians in Ohio

     Wars and Battles

4. Explain how Ohio progressed from territory to statehood, including the terms of the Northwest Ordinance.

     Ohio Government

     Ohio Statehood

5. Explain how canals and railroads changed settlement patterns in Ohio and Ohio’s economic and political status in the United States.

     Transportation in Ohio

6. Explain the importance of inventors such as the Wright Brothers, Charles Kettering, Garrett Morgan, Granville Woods and Thomas Edison.

     Science and Technology in Ohio

     First Flight

     Flights of Inspiration

     First in Flight

People in Societies

1. Describe the cultural practices and products of various groups who have settled in Ohio over time
a. the Paleo Indians, Archaic Indians, Woodland Indians (Adena and Hopewell) and Late Prehistoric Indians (Fort Ancient)
b. historic Indians of Ohio (Ottawa, Wyandot, Mingo, Miami, Shawnee and Delaware)
c. European immigrants
d. Amish and Appalachian populations
e. African-Americans
f. recent immigrants from Africa, Asia and Latin America

     African American Ohioians

     Immigration and Ethnc Heritage

     American Indians in Ohio

     Groups of Ohioians

2. Describe the impact of the expansion of European settlements on American Indians in Ohio.

     American Indians in Ohio

3. Explain the reasons people came to Ohio including
a. opportunities in agriculture, mining and manufacturing
b. family ties
c. freedom from political and religious oppression

     Religion in Ohio

     Business and Labor in Ohio


1. Use a linear scale to measure the distance between places on a map.

2. Use cardinal and intermediate directions to describe the relative location of places.

     Use Cardinal Directions

     Compass Rose Printout

3. Describe the location of Ohio relative to other states and countries.

     Where in the World is Ohio?

4. Use maps to identify the location of major physical and human features of Ohio including
a. Lake Erie
b. rivers
c. plains
d. the Appalachian Plateau
e. bordering states
f. the capital city
g. other major cities

     Ohio's Cities Game

     Ohio's Rivers Game

     County Location

     Ohio's Cities

     Ohio's Rivers

5. Describe and compare the landforms, climates, population, vegetation and economic characteristics of places and regions in Ohio.

     Plants and Animals of Ohio

     The Land of Ohio

6. Identify manufacturing, agricultural, mining and forestry regions in Ohio.

     Business and Labor in Ohio

7. Explain how resources, transportation and location influenced the development of cities and industries in Ohio including major industries such as oil, steel, rubber and glass.

     America on the Move

     Natural Resources Up To 1903

     Transportation In Ohio

8. Identify how environmental processes (i.e., glaciation and weathering) and characteristics (landforms, bodies of water, climate, vegetation) influence human settlement and activity in Ohio.

     Climate and Weather

     Shaping the Land

9. Identify ways that people have affected the physical environment of Ohio including
a. use of wetlands
b. use of forests
c. building farms, towns and transportation systems
d. using fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides
e. building dams

     America on the Move

     Plants and Animals of Ohio

     Transportation in Ohio

     Agriculture in Ohio

     Early Ohio Transportation

10. Use elevation, natural resource and road maps to answer questions about patterns of settlement, economic activity and movement.

     Types of Maps


1. Identify the productive resources needed to produce a good or service and suggest opportunity costs for the resources involved.

2. Explain how the availability of productive resources in Ohio promotes specialization in the production of goods and services and leads to trade.

     Business and Labor in Ohio

3. Explain how entrepreneurs organize productive resources to produce goods and services and that they seek to make profits by taking risks.

     Hot Shot Business

4. Explain ways in which individuals and households obtain and use income.

     Business and Industry in Ohio

5. Explain why people in Ohio specialize in what they produce and then trade with others, which then increases the amount of goods and services available.

6. Explain why many jobs in Ohio depend on markets in other countries and why Ohio is a market for goods and services from other countries.


1. Explain major responsibilities of each of the three branches of government Ohio
a. the legislative branch, headed by the General Assembly, makes state laws
b. the executive branch, headed by the governor, carries out and enforces laws made by the General Assembly
c. the judicial branch, headed by the Ohio Supreme Court, interprets and applies the law

     State of Ohio Government Information

     Ohio Defined

     Levels of Government Kidspiration Activity

     Branches of Government Quiz

     Ben's Guide The Branches of Government

     Three Branches of Government Quiz

2. Explain why elections are used to select leaders and decide issues.

     Electing a President

3. Explain the purpose of a democratic constitution
a. to provide a framework for a government
b. to limit the power of government
c. to define the authority of elected officials

4. Explain that the Ohio Constitution tells how the state government should be organized and guarantees the rights of individuals.

Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities

1. Describe the ways in which citizens can promote the common good and influence their government including
a. voting
b. communicating with officials
c. participating in civic and service organizations
d. performing voluntary service

     Inside a Voting Booth

     Electing a President

2. Explain why personal responsibilities (e.g., taking advantage of the opportunity to be educated) and civic responsibilities (e.g., obeying the law and respecting the rights of others) are important.

     Education in Ohio

3. Explain the importance of leadership and public service.

4. Explain why characteristics such as respect for the rights of others, fairness, reliability, honesty, wisdom and courage are desirable qualities in the people citizens select as their leaders.

Social Studies Skills and Methods

1. Obtain information about state issues from a variety of print and electronic sources, and determine the relevance of information to a research topic
a. atlases
b. encyclopedias
c. dictionaries
d. newspapers
e. multimedia/electronic sources

     Zanesville Times Recorder

     Newark Advocate

     Lancaster Eagle Gazette

     Ohio Memory

2. Use a glossary and index to locate information.

3. Use primary and secondary sources to answer questions about Ohio history.

     Ohio Memory

4. Describe how archaeologists and historians study and interpret the past.

5. Identify main ideas and supporting details from factual information.

6. Distinguish between fact and opinion.

     Fact or Opinion Game

     Fact or Opinion Game 2

7. Read and interpret pictographs, bar graphs, line graphs and tables.

     Line Graphs

     Bar Graphs

     Using Line Graphs

8. Formulate a question to focus research.

9. Communicate relevant information in a written report including the acknowledgement of sources.

10. Use a problem-solving/decision-making process which includes
a. identifying a problem
b. gathering information
c. listing and considering options
d. considering advantages and disadvantages of options
e. choosing and implementing a solution
f. developing criteria for judging its effectiveness


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